The Somali piracy High Risk Area (HRA) was created in the Indian Ocean in 2010 and represented where it was considered a higher threat of attack from pirates exists, and additional security requirements may be necessary. The HRA was last amended in May 2019, and the BMP 5 co-authors began a further review of the extent of the area in February 2021. The HRA enabled the maritime industry to align on how and where to protect seafarers.
A thorough threat assessment for the Western Indian Ocean was conducted by the co-authors, drawing on the threat assessments of SHADE, EUNAVFOR Atalanta, UNODC, and data from UKMTO. The following conclusions were drawn from this process: